Retry Strategies


With requests and urllib3 under the hood, the Cortex Data Lake Python SDK offers access to a variety of powerful features, adapters and design patterns, that developers can use to extend the base functionality. The following tutorial presents a recipe for overridding the default Retry strategy in order to handle situations where API rate limits are exceeded.


The Query Service API currently implements a sliding window rate limit of 5,000 queries/hour.


Before we begin, it's important to note that the base CDL Python SDK HTTPClient class implements a general case transport adapter, configured with the following settings:

HTTPAdapter (
pool_connections: int=10,
pool_maxsize: int=10,
max_retries: int=0, # Default behavior is *NOT* to retry failed connections
pool_block: bool=False

Although good enough for the majority of cases, there are situations where you could implement a retry strategy to handle specific error conditions. One such case is when the Query Service API returns an HTTP status 429 code, also known as a "Too Many Requests" error. This can occur when your client exceeds the Query Service API rate limit of 5,000 queries/hour.

With the default HTTPClient, you'd be forced to code your own retry strategy, complete with a retry interval and backoff algorithm.



The Recipe

As you might have guessed by now, there's a way to configure the CDL Python SDK to automatically retry after receiving an HTTP 429 response code ("Too Many Requests" error). Moreover, we can define a retry strategy that also implements exponential backoff, all with a few lines of code!

# example reduced to relevant ingredients
from pan_cortex_data_lake import QueryService
from requests.packages.urllib3.util.retry import Retry
# Retry intervals:
# 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
# 0s, 14s, 28s, 56s, 112s, 224s, 448s, 896s, 1792s, 3584s
retry_strategy = Retry(
total=10, status_forcelist=[429], method_whitelist=["GET", "POST"], backoff_factor=7
qs = QueryService(max_retries=retry_strategy)

So let's break down what's happening here:

  • Import the urllib3 Retry class.
  • Define a retry strategy to handle HTTP 429 errors for GET and POST requests.
  • Pass the retry_strategy to our QueryService() class constructor using the max_retries key-word argument.

Now, if we exceed the Query Service API rate limit, the CDL Python SDK will automatically implement the retry strategy with a retry interval of 0s, 14s, 28s, 56s, 112s, 224s, 448s, 896s, 1792s, 3584s, more than enough time for the rate limiting window to reset.


Although Retry can work in conjunction with timeout, connection/read timeouts can only be applied on a per-request basis.

For more information see the official reference documentation for the Retry module.

Last updated on by Steven Serrata